A tool for calculating simple, useful complexity metrics -- notably the Koopman Spaghetti Factor (KSF) -- for C.

I've had to review code that has spaghetti-level complexity in control flow (too high cyclomatic complexity). And I've had to review code that has spaghetti-level complexity its data flow (too many global variables mixed together into a single computation). And I've had to review procedures that just go on for page after page with no end in sight. But the stuff that will really make your brain hurt is code that has all of these problems. -- Phil Koopman

This tool is designed to work especially on embedded software written for compilers with non-standard extensions. It works without a compiler or any preprocessing required.


Ravioli is built in Python, and the easiest way to install it is with the Python packaging tool pip. First install Python and then run pip:

$ pip install ravioli


You can run this on a single file and it will compute metrics for it. Pass it a folder however and it will calculate metrics on all c files it finds in there.

Use it in the current folder like this:

$ ravioli .

And you'll get a list of all modules sorted by Koopman Spaghetti Factor (KSF):

File                                         complexity   globals   lines   ksf
motobox\Sources\FreeRTOS\tasks.c                     12         0    1387    81
motobox\Sources\datapage.c                            1         0    1242    63
motobox\Sources\FreeRTOS\queue.c                     15         0     930    61
motobox\Sources\command_processor.c                  19         2     243    41
motobox\Sources\rtos.c                                5         6     135    41
motobox\Sources\vehicle_comm.c                        8         1     432    34
motobox\Sources\vehicle_comm_sim.c                   11         0     373    29
motobox\Sources\Start12.c                             1         1     337    22
motobox\Sources\can.c                                 7         0     289    21
motobox\Sources\iso15765.c                           12         0     187    21
motobox\Sources\flash.c                               7         0     268    20
motobox\Sources\j1979.c                              10         0     201    20
motobox\Sources\Cpu.C                                 2         2      40    14
motobox\Sources\leds.c                                2         2      26    13
motobox\Sources\log.c                                 3         1     117    13
motobox\Sources\rti.c                                 2         2      23    13

There is also a -f flag that you can select, that will list all global variables and all functions, sorted by complexity:

$ ravioli -f .

motobox\Sources\Cpu.C:58 CCR_reg
motobox\Sources\Cpu.C:59 CpuMode
motobox\Sources\leds.c:11 zLEDDelay
motobox\Sources\leds.c:11 zLEDDelay
motobox\Sources\log.c:23 TestLog
motobox\Sources\rti.c:13 RTIInterruptCount
motobox\Sources\rti.c:14 TimeInSec
Functions                                                            complexity
     zRunCommand                                                             19
     xQueueGenericReceive                                                    15
     xQueueAltGenericReceive                                                 14
     zParseCANMessage                                                        12
     xTaskGenericCreate                                                      12
     VehicleSimControlCommand                                                11
     J1979SendTestMessageCommand                                             10

There is also a -t option to only display result at or above a particular threshold. When using the default mode, this is a KSF threshold. When using the -f option, this a function complexity threshold.


If an error is encountered when parsing a source file, that file is ignored in the output. To see errors that occur, use the -e option.

Full usage info

> ravioli -h
usage: ravioli.py [-h] [-f] [-t threshold] [-e] source

Calculate complexity metrics for C code, specifically the Koopman Spaghetti
Factor (KSF).

positional arguments:
  source        the source file or folder for which to calculate metrics

optional arguments:
  -h, --help    show this help message and exit
  -f            output a complete list of all globals and functions sorted by
  -t threshold  Only display results at or above this threshold (KSF or
                function complexity)
  -e            show any errors encountered processing source files

File extensions

By default ravioli runs on c files, but you can use the -x option to select different extensions.

Implementation Details

The Koopman Spaghetti Factor is calculated on each module (source code file) like this:

KSF = max(SCC) + (Globals*5) + (SLOC/20)
  • KSF = The Koopman Spaghetti Factor.
  • max(SCC): The maximum SCC of all of the functions in the module. This is the strict cyclomatic complexity or extended cyclomatic complexity. Basically it's a code complexity metric that includes all the booleans in any conditionals as additional complexity.
  • Globals = The number of global variables in the module.
  • SLOC = The number of lines of non-comment source code lines in the module.


For calculating metrics on C source code.

Ravioli Info

⭐ Stars 24
🔗 Source Code github.com
🕒 Last Update a year ago
🕒 Created 3 years ago
🐞 Open Issues 9
➗ Star-Issue Ratio 3
😎 Author ElectronVector